Exam-themes for the first-grade course in caving (theoretical knowledge)
Questions of basic knowledge is written in normal
script, while those of supplementary knowledge are in italic script.
Attention! If a certain subject is written as supplementary, it might still
be a question on the examination-sheet. We gladly appreciate any remark,
advice and question concerning the material published below.
I. TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE: MAIN PERSONAL EQUIPMENT
Compiled by: Szabó Bors
II. TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE: PERSONAL SUPPLEMENTARY AND COLLECTIVE EQUIPMENT
- Which are the types of carbide-lamps?
- Compare electric and carbide lights!
- Draw a carbide-container of open-system and describe how it works!
- Draw a carbide-container of pressure equalising system and describe how it works!
- Draw a carbide-container with air pump and describe how it works!
- Draw a carbide-container with water-injection and describe how it works!
- Outline the requirements for main and secondary lighting!
- Comparing it to the whole length of the tour, for how long should a main and a secondary light work? Why?
- What is the contact zone? What is it significant for and how does it work?
- What object can be kept in the contact-zone? Why?
- What are the requirements for helmets?
- In what cases does a helmet protect us?
- What should the first-aid-kit include?
- On a tour of 6-8 persons, how many people should carry a first-aid-kit?
- Why is it important for each caver to carry his own first-aid-kit?
- What is the isolating foil used for?
III. TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE: CAVING TOUR
- List the personal supplementary equipment for using the French technique?
- List the collective equipment!
- Why is the correct adjustment of equipment (harness, chest harness, double lanyard, leg loop) important when using the French technique?
- Group descenders! Write examples!
- Group ascenders! Write examples!
- Characterise static and dynamic ropes!
- What is the difference between climbing and caving ropes? Why?
- How many per cent is the stretch of static and dynamic ropes? At what shock load?
- When do we use climbing ropes in caves?
- What is the approximate strength-figure of caving ropes?
- How often and how should we clean ropes?
- What type and how thick rope should be used for double lanyards? Why?
- What type and how thick a rope should be used as a prussik?
- What are the characteristics of the MAILLON RAPIDE carabiners? What shapes can they be?
- What materials are carabiners made of? What are the characteristics of each?
- What kind of carabiner-locks do you know of?
- Group carabiners according to their shapes!
- How big of a load can a PETZL ascender give to the rope without damaging it?
- Why do climbing and caving harnesses differ?
- Which are the six knots we use most often? What do we use each for?
IV. TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE: CAVE BIVOUAC
- Group caving tours according to their difficulty!
- What is a caving tour?
- How many participants should be at least on a caving tour? Why? When can we depart from this method?
- What are the personal requirements for a caving tour?
- What are the three basic principles of caving?
- What is the highest safety principle?
- What is the agreement of objectives and possibilities principle?
- What does the tour-leader’s personal responsibility mean?
- What are the rights and duties of tour-leaders and participants?
V. TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE: HOW TO OVERCOME SHAFTS AND CLEFTS
- What does cave bivouac mean?
- What equipment do we need for bivouac?
- Describe the requirements of each bivouac-equipment!
- Why are sleeping bags stuffed with fluff unsuitable for bivouac?
- Which are the main viewpoints of choosing a bivouac-place?
- What foods are practical for a bivouac tour?
VI. KNOWLEDGE OF SAFETY TECHNIQUES: SAFETY TECHNIQUE
- What is division? Why do we use it?
- How many fix-points should be used at least when beginning a shaft?
- What kind of natural and artificial fix-points do you know of?
- What is the importance of an opening rein?
- Why do we have to divide long opening reins?
- How do we have to proceed on long opening reins?
- Why is a tight rope bridge dangerous?
- How can we increase at the same time the safety and feeling of security of a tight rope bridge?
- What is the role of drags?
- Why is it useful to divide deep shafts?
- What is that minimal depth of a shaft, which needs to be divided?
- How long sections should shafts be divided into?
VII. KNOWLEDGE OF SAFETY TECHNIQUES: SOURCES OF DANGER AND RESOURCES IN CAVES
- What is safety-technique and what is belaying?
- What types of belaying do you know of?
- What is the aim of defensive belaying, what faults can appear in it?
- When is defensive belaying needed?
- When is self-belaying needed?
- By the usage of which descenders do we have to use self-belaying?
- Why can’t we use self-belaying by the usage of the Stop descender?
- What equipment can we use for self-belaying?
- Why is the usage of an only (Poignee) ascender improper for belaying on a horizontal rope bridge?
- What is the difference between static and dynamic belaying?
- With what equipment can we belay one another from below and from above?
- In what cases can we belay with static ropes?
- Why is a static rope improper for belaying in general?
- What is a belay point? When is it needed?
- What factors determine the impact force in a rope when falling?
Which factor has the most outstanding role, why?
- What is the Fall Factor? Describe its significance!
- Draw an example for Fall Factor 2!
- What are the possible numbers for the Fall Factor?
- How can the Fall Factor be higher than 2?
VIII. KNOWLEDGE OF SAFETY TECHNIQUES: ACCIDENTS IN CAVES, RESCUE
- What do we call objective and subjective sources of danger?
- Which are the main groups of objective dangers?
- Describe the dangers, which are connected with climatic factors!
- What does “bound return” mean?
- List the subjective sources of danger!
- Is it more dangerous to visit caves at night? Why?
- Describe the role of chance occurrence among subjective dangers!
- Which are the main groups of resources?
- Outline the significance of information and time as resources!
- List the human resources!
- Describe the theory of resources!
IX. KNOWLEDGE OF SAFETY TECHNIQUES: FIRST-AID
- How can we define a cave-accident?
- List accidents of personal injury!
- List accidents of hindrance of progress!
- What is the highest danger in accidents to the injured person? How can we prevent it?
- How can we define rescue in a cave?
- List the sections of rescue!
- What do we call rescue of partners?
- What are the characteristics of rescuing partners?
- What is the significance of rescuing partners?
- What is the telephone number of the Cave Rescue Service (BMSZ)?
- What pieces of information do we have to tell to the BMSZ?
- According to which viewpoints can we decide whether the injured can be taken out by partner-rescue or the Cave Rescue Service has to be called?
- Why is it practical to call the Cave Rescue Service through the alert duty of the Capitol Police Headquarters?
X. SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE: BIOLOGY OF CAVES
- What is the main danger in losing consciousness? How can we prevent it?
- What needs to be done with an unconscious injured person?
- Which are the contraindications for stable side positioning?
- What is the definition of shock?
- How can shock be created?
- How can we prevent shock and how can we decrease its worsening?
- When can spine-fracture be suspected?
- How can we determine spine-fracture?
- What are the signs of concussion?
- What dangers are present in concussion?
- How can we make a distinction between arterial and venous bleeding?
- How do we dress arterial and venous bleeding?
- What effect endangers the injured person in an accident in caves? How can prevent it?
- How can we decrease the danger of cooling?
- What do we give the injured to eat and drink till the doctor arrives?
- When having suspicions of spine-fracture, how can the injured be moved?
- Describe the dressing of limb-fractures?
XI. SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE: CLIMATE OF CAVES
- Describe the flora of caves! What groups of it do you know of?
- What is lamp-flora? What causes it?
- How can we group the animals of caves?
- Describe trogloxene animals! Write examples!
- Describe troglophil animals! Write examples!
- What are the characteristics of troglobiont animals? Write examples!
XII. SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE: CAVE-PROTECTION
- What sections can a cave be divided into from climatic viewpoints?
- How long is the entrance section? What are its characteristics?
- What is the cold-point?
- What are the characteristics of the cave-section?
- What is the turmoil-section? What are its characteristics?
- What elements of climate do you know of?
- What is the basic determiner of the cave’s air? What other factors can be determiners?
- What is the usual temperature of caves in Hungary?
- What causes draught in caves? What determines its direction and intensity?
- Why is there stronger draught in caves of larger airspace?
- What is the sack-effect?
- Describe the winter and summer airflow of caves!
- How are ice-caves formed and how do they “work”?
XIII. SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE: MAPING CAVES
- Compare lights from the viewpoints of environmental protection and cave-protection!
- What do you have to pay attention to when eating in caves?
- What do you have to pay attention to on a bivouac-tour?
- Why do they limit the wintertime visits of those caves in which many bats sleep in?
- Why is it critical for bats if they are awakened?
- How many awakenings can a bat survive during wintertime?
- What do you have to pay attention to when locking caves?
- What damages does the cave’s light-pollution cause?
- What does the law of environmental protection say about cave-protection?
XIV. SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE: CAVE-GEOLOGY
- What is azimuth?
- What is declination?
- Which tunnel-width appears on the map of a cave?
- What is the poligon, what data characterise certain sections of poligons?
- What is the map of a cave?
- What is the length-profile and what is the cross-profile?
- What is the difference between a layout and a projected length-profile?
- Where is it practical to take the cross-profile?
- How do maps mark the different levels of tunnels?
- What do the following symbols mean?
- What data do we have to indicate on maps of caves?
- What is the length and what is the depth of caves?
XV. SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE: CAVE-GEOGRAPHY OF HUNGARY
- Group rocks according to how they were created!
- Group sedimentary rocks! Write examples!
- Group magmata rocks! Write examples!
- How do metamorphic rocks come into being? Write examples!
- Describe the method of mountain-formation!
- What is the geometric gradient? What causes it?
- What is the definition of rock?
- What is the definition of cave?
- List karstic and non-karstic rocks!
- Describe the types of syngenetic cave-formation!
- Describe the types of postgenetic cave-formation!
- What is the function of mixture corrosion? What role does it play in cave-formation?
- Why is limestone the most suitable for cave-formation?
- What role does tectonic performance play in the formation of caves?
- What are the effective factors of limestone-dissolvation?
- What is a sinkhole? Where can we find them?
- Describe erosional cave-formation!
- Describe corrosional cave-formation!
- How do levels of caves get formed?
- What marks vertical caves? How do they get formed?
- Draw and name the main units and types of karsts!
- What is the definition of erosion-base?
- Describe deep-karst!
- Describe shallow-karst!
- How does a karst-spring gaining water from a deep or a shallow karst react to the rain falling on the surface?
- What flowing factors determine shallow and deep karst?
- What is the typical cavity-forming effect on the deep and the shallow karst and on the border of the two?
- What is the border of the shallow and the deep karst?
- How does a sinkhole, a doline and a collapse get formed?
- What is a clint, how does it get formed, what are its types?
- What is a polje, what are its characteristics?
- To what effect does lime separate from karstwater?
- Why do travertine-dikes get formed by karst-springs, and why by waterfalls?
- Group deposits in caves!
- What is stalagmite, stalactite and stalagnate?
- Describe the process of dripstone-formation?
- List the main types of dripstones!
- What is a sifon, a helictite, and a meander?
(* Mark at each cave on which karst-territory it is!)
- Mark the main karst-territories of Hungary on the map!
- List the three deepest and the three longest caves of Hungary! *
- List show caves open for the public in Hungary! *
- List such caves in Hungary, in which bat-colonies winter! *
- List caves in Hungary in which archaeological findings have been found! *
- Write examples for caves, which have many levels, for shafts and sinkholes! *
- Write examples for crystal-caves, stream caves and thermal-originated caves! *
- Name caves, the forming rock of which is not limestone! *
Last modifyed at: 07/01/99.